Validity - This link provides an overview of the ways in which validity in analyzed in qualitative research and includes an explanation of common terminology. Triangulation - Establishing Validity - Types of triangulation that are used to improve the validity of qualitative research are discussed in this link.
Techniques for Establishing Validity - The following resource provides links to techniques for establishing credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability in qualitative research.
Believe it or Not: This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. Establishing Validity in Qualitative Research The following module discusses reliability and validity in qualitative research, with an emphasis on establishing credibility and transferability.
Define and reliability and validity in qualitative research. Discuss the importance of establishing validity. List strategies used by researchers to improve reliability and validity. In order to withstand the scrutiny, researchers should spend time giving serious consideration to the following four aspects: Credibility - Often called internal validity, refers to the believability and trustworthiness of the findings.
This depends more on the richness of the data gathered than on the quantity of data. The participants of the study are the only ones that decide if the results actually reflect the phenomena being studied and therefore, it is important that participants feel the findings are credible and accurate. Triangulation is a commonly used method for verifying accuracy that involves cross-checking information from multiple perspectives.
The link in Resources Links on the left describes different types of triangulation methods. Transferability - Often called external validity, refers to the degree that the findings of the research can be transferred to other contexts by the readers.
This means that the results are generalizable and can be applied to other similar settings, populations, situations and so forth. Researchers should thoroughly describe the context of the research to assist the reader in being able to generalize the findings and apply them appropriately.
Dependability - Otherwise known as reliability, refers to the consistency with which the results could be repeated and result in similar findings. The dependability of the findings also lends legitimacy to the research method. Because the nature of qualitative research often results in an ever changing research setting and changing contexts, it is important that researcher document all aspects of any changes or unexpected occurrences to further explain the findings.
This is also important for other researchers who may want to replicate the study. Are the findings genuine? Is hand strength a valid measure of intelligence?
Almost certainly the answer is "No, it is not. The answer depends on the amount of research support for such a relationship. Internal validity - the instruments or procedures used in the research measured what they were supposed to measure. As part of a stress experiment, people are shown photos of war atrocities. After the study, they are asked how the pictures made them feel, and they respond that the pictures were very upsetting.
In this study, the photos have good internal validity as stress producers. External validity - the results can be generalized beyond the immediate study. In order to have external validity, the claim that spaced study studying in several sessions ahead of time is better than cramming for exams should apply to more than one subject e.
It should also apply to people beyond the sample in the study. Different methods vary with regard to these two aspects of validity. Experiments, because they tend to be structured and controlled, are often high on internal validity. However, their strength with regard to structure and control, may result in low external validity. The results may be so limited as to prevent generalizing to other situations. In contrast, observational research may have high external validity generalizability because it has taken place in the real world.
However, the presence of so many uncontrolled variables may lead to low internal validity in that we can't be sure which variables are affecting the observed behaviors. Relationship between reliability and validity.
Internal validity dictates how an experimental design is structured and encompasses all of the steps of the scientific research method. Even if your results are great, sloppy and inconsistent design will compromise your integrity in the eyes of the scientific community.
Sampling Validity (similar to content validity) ensures that the area of coverage of the measure within the research area is vast. No measure is able to cover all items and elements within the phenomenon, therefore, important items and elements are selected using a specific pattern of sampling method depending on aims and objectives of the .
INTERNAL VALIDITY is affected by flaws within the study itself such as not controlling some of the major variables (a design problem), or problems with the research instrument (a data collection problem). Here we consider three basic kinds: face validity, content validity, and criterion validity. Face Validity Face validity is the extent to which a measurement method appears “on its face” to measure the construct of interest.
Validity: the best available approximation to the truth of a given proposition, inference, or conclusion. The first thing we have to ask is: "validity of what?"When we think about validity in research, most of us think about research components. Validity of research can be explained as an extent at which requirements of scientific research method have been followed during the process of generating research findings. Oliver () considers validity to be a compulsory requirement for .