This has increased the need for the FBI to work with its counterparts in other countries in order to disrupt these costly criminal activities. It also maintains a Sports Bribery Program aimed at ensuring the integrity of American sporting events by educating sports officials and players about the role of organized crime in gambling, corruption, bribery, and drug trafficking. Additionally, the program investigates and prosecutes offenses related to federal gambling and corruption laws in sports.
Within sociological theory, many of the activities engaged in by organized crime come under the concept of white-collar crime. Analysis of white collar crime focuses on two types: Since white collar crime is intermingled with legitimate business activities and often involves complex and sophisticated technical actions, detection is very difficult. Technically speaking, when a corporation commits an offense, this is called "corporate crime" or "organizational crime," which is considered one type of white-collar crime.
This division of white collar crime categories into two types, occupational and corporate, was advanced by Clinard and Quinney in the s, and it remains influential to this day Green, Another aspect of white-collar crime that can be either individual or organized is governmental or political crime, for instance, lawmakers trading their influence and legislative votes for money and gifts. In addition to crimes deemed to be white collar in nature, RICO provides penalties for gambling, extortion, prostitution, narcotics trafficking, loan sharking and murder.
Punishment under RICO can be extremely harsh, including fines and up to 20 years in prison. Additionally, the defendant must forfeit any claims to the money or property obtained from the criminal enterprise or obtained from any criminal enterprise barred under RICO White-collar, Despite decades of corporate criminal offenses, it was not until that Congress enacted legislation that seriously penalized corporate wrongdoing.
Those convicted of committing securities fraud faced up to 25 years in prison. Also contained within the act was the directive that the Federal U. Sentencing Commission increase the penalties for other white-collar crimes.
These new regulations have changed the historical landscape of both public and law enforcement attitudes towards white-collar crime. In addition to traditional views on the causes of crime and deviance that focus on an individual's motivation or character, several other theories of crime deserve brief mention in relation to organized crime. Based upon Marxist views of capitalism, Taylor, Walton, and Young argued that oppressed groups, such as the working class, women, and minorities, may take action against the dominant, capitalist culture in order to counteract that culture's social, economic, and political power The dominant culture then labels these actions as criminal in order to maintain its power.
In other words, under critical criminology, what constitutes criminal behavior is contingent upon social and historical context, meaning that the definition of criminal behavior can vary over time in relation to the interests of the dominant group. Critics of critical criminology argue that it romanticizes violent, disruptive, and harmful acts and that it has little interest in the realities of crime. Although "left realism criminology" developed out of the theoretical framework of critical criminology, it focuses upon realistic approaches to crime.
By studying crime victims, left realists focus on the marginalization or powerlessness of both the victims and the perpetrators of crime.
Violent crime is a complex problem and can only be responded to in complex ways. There was a decline in crime during the s. Our country enjoyed seven years of declining crime for the period , the most recent data available. These are welcome developments, particularly following the surge of crime and violence of the late s. Many observers have drawn a simple correlation between these two trends. Putting more offenders in prison caused the reduction in crime.
The Sentencing project has just completed a study that examines this issue in great detail and concludes that any such correlation is ambiguous at best. In examining the relationship between incarceration and crime in the s the picture is complicated by the seven year period just prior to this, Thus we see a continuous rise in incarceration for fourteen years, during which crime rose for seven years, then declined for seven years.
This does not suggest that incarceration had no impact on crime, but any such connection is clearly influenced by other factors. A comparison with other nations is instructive in this regard. First, it is important to understand just what white collar crime ac This 8 page paper uses analysis to determine whether urban crime increases in racially segregated residential areas.
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Research within librarian-selected research topics on Criminology and Crime from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and more.
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