Residential and industrial centers in places such as Belgium, England, Italy, France, Poland and Germany etc were left in complete ruins. In essence, most regions in Europe were on the verge of famine since agricultural activities were halted by war.
The plan for reconstruction was developed during a meeting of European states and was drafted on 5 th June Similar aid was offered to the Soviet Union as well as its allies however, they turned down the offer because they believed to accept it meant allowing the United States control over communist economies.
Secretary Marshall was convinced Stalin did not have any interest in assisting with restoration of economic stability in Western Europe. As the aid came to an end in , the economy of all participating states had already surpassed the levels of pre-war. For two decades afterwards, the level of prosperity and growth in Western Europe was unprecedented. The Plan was the very first element of integration in Europe due to the fact that it got rid of trade barriers and led to the setting up of institutions that coordinated the economy on continental level.
This means Western Europe was completely stimulated for political reconstruction. This is because the US benefited greatly since by giving aid to these countries, they had no option but to open their economies to the United States.
The only place where you can buy an essay paper that is perfectly written and formatted such as this is at Essays Experts. This is because we are experinced in the field to give you the best. Why the Marshall Plan was important World War 2 which had gone on for years had serious devastating effects on Europe. Soviet rulers considered the Marshall Plan to be an attempt to destroy the Soviet domination in the Eastern Europe. Finland also declined in order to avoid antagonizing the Soviets.
Many historians will feel uncomfortable with this conclusion; and it is certainly not a point of view that is popular with American historians, especially now. Nor should this much surprise us. But this approach looks like that which is a little bit simplified.
First of all the confrontation was originally programmed in the ideological difference of the two systems. Nowadays we can observe the nominally Communist China and Vietnam integrating in the world market economy. The modern economies of China and Vietnam have nothing common with the traditional communist command economy. It could be said that the ideological basis of the modern China and Vietnam contradicts completely to the traditional communist approach to economy when the market and the competition according to classics of Marxism-Leninism are aimed to exploitation of the working class and prosperity of the ruling class.
Nobody knows what kind of confrontation would be if the Marshall Plan were not introduced. One of the possible scenarios could be that the Europe remained in ruins, Soviets gained the unlimited influence and the greater part of Europe would get involved into the crazy arm race without any restrictive factor which would lead to the new global conflict.
The Marxian ideologists interpreted the Marshall Plan as the manifestation of the US neo-colonial global policy. These countries had to acquire direct political possession of the colonial areas in order to control, subjugate and exploit them. American imperialism, with its overwhelming capacity to produce, has always used economic penetration as its main weapon of gaining economic and political control over another country. The political aim of the Marshall Plan as it was stated above was to restrain the Soviet expansion and influence in the post War Europe and the entire world.
At the same time as it was stated above they have basic system ideological differences which in their essence were incompatible. Germany, Italy and Japan were destructed and demoralized to oppose the growing Soviet influence. The spread of the Soviet influence created the real threat to the entire world. What is more, the situation looked like paradox because the United States assisted to strengthen the position of its ideological opponent in the world. Due to its geopolitical position the United States could not provide the symmetric political presence in Europe.
The Great Britain ran its traditional isolationist policy. France was not economically and politically strong enough to oppose the Soviet influence. The mere existence of a great free country like our own, to which anti-Soviet forces could gravitate, would then be a major danger even more than it is today to the security of the Soviet political structure.
For this reason, the Russians would inevitably focus the full force of their economic and military power upon the destruction of our society, with a view to establishing here a regime subservient to themselves which would make no further trouble for them. Such attitude towards position of Russia was a little bit exaggerated especially when Mr. Kennan said about the direct Russian aggression against the United States but still it indicated the real threat of Russian influence in the world.
It is worth reminding that Mr. Kennan spoke about the Soviet threat to American society in when there were only two dominating military and political forces in the world, the USA and the USSR, one of which started forming the military and political block risking the superpower global balance.
It is worth noting that the initial confrontation of the superpowers was the battle for minds. The Europeans with their destructed economies had the options to choose either the ideology of Communism with its dictatorship and command economy or find the way to rehabilitate their post-war economies on the basis of free market and the United States entered this battle for the sake of the Europeans.
The post-war situation is similar to that of nowadays when the United States faces the problem of battling the global terrorism including the economic measures. The most important of them is that the United States and the civilized community introduced and implemented the unprecedented tool of collective reconstruction. It is worth mentioning that the post-war European economies were rehabilitated by the Europeans themselves with the assistance of the United States.
The essence of the Marshall speech at Harvard was that the European countries were supposed to reconstruct their countries themselves and the United States was not supposed to interfere into this process. That is, the United States provided only the tools for reconstruction without imposing any dictatorship.
Another important outcome of the Marshall Plan was that the former enemies in the World War II succeeded to join their efforts in building the new Europe taking away the political, economic and ideological disagreements of the former enemies in the bloodiest war of the human history. The Marshall Plan apart from its economic value became the factor consolidating Europe. Jobs and a strong middle class were key to fighting communism. They were key for Europeans to rebuild from the rubble and offer hope for their youth who were the most susceptible to the message of international communism.
The history of the mankind knows a lot of examples when the political and economic actions were imposed from outside. The Marshall Plan gave the brilliant example when the effective assistance program had the local character. It was taken as fair and sincere action because of its transparency and the complete lack of the outer dictatorship. It had a great ideological value as well indicating that people of the countries which were completely destructed by the devastating war were able to rehabilitate their economies and rebuild their home countries.
Text of the Marshall Plan Speech 4.
The Marshall Plan essaysAfter the devastating effects of WWII, Europe's economic and social conditions where in shambles. The personal suffering and internal upheavals threatened chaos. There was a lack of coal, steel, electrical power, railroad cars, locomotives, trucks, oil, and grain. All.
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The Marshall Plan officially known as the European Recovery Program or ERP, it was the primary program during to assist with aid. The. Free Essay: The Marshall Plan First and foremost, a great deal of Europe’s success would not have happened without its initial aid from the United States.
Read Marshall Plan free essay and over 88, other research documents. Marshall Plan. After the conclusion of the brutal World War II, Europe was left in ruins - all of the governments were /5(1). Marshall Plan. Officially known as European Recovery Program (ERP), the Marshall Plan was crafted by the US for purposes of rebuilding allied Europe country after World War 2.