This also happened in the Indus delta area as a large area measuring 80 km in length and 26 km in width was raised by 3 m from the surrounding area. Similarly, the coastal land of Chile was raised from 6m to 13 m because of the earthquake of The seafloor of Sagami Bay of Japan was subsided from m to m because of the earthquake of Strong seismic events result in the damages of dams and cause severe flash floods. Severe floods are also caused because of blocking of water flow of rivers due to rock blocks and debris produced by severe tremors on the hill slopes facing the river valleys.
Sometimes, the blockade of the rivers is so immense that even the main course of the river is changed. Similarly, the dam on Subansiri River broke in and resultant flash flood submerged an area of square kilometres. The Kutch earthquake of June 16, generated strong tsunamis which submerged the coastal areas and inflicted great damage to ships and country-made boats of the fishermen. The land area measuring 24 km in length was raised upward because of tectonic movement triggered by the said earthquake which provided shelter to the stranded and marooned people.
The great tsunamis caused by the Lisbon earthquake of the year in Portugal generated about 12 m high sea waves which damaged most parts of Lisbon city and killed 30, to 60, people. The impact of this earthquake was so enormous that the waters of inland lakes like Looh Lomond and Looh Ness continued to oscillate for several hours.
The strong tsunamis triggered by Lisbon earthquake also caused 3. The earthquake caused by violent volcanic eruption of Karakatoa in caused enormous tsunamis which generated As these waves approach coastal land, the depth of oceanic water decreases but the height of tsunamis increases enormously and when they strike the coast, they cause havoc in the coastal areas.
The best example of tsunami induced by violent volcanic eruption is from Krakatao eruption which occurred in Severe earthquake caused by Krakatao eruption generated furious tsunami waves ranging in 30 to 40 meters in height average being feet or These waves were so violent that they ravaged the coasts of Java and Sumatra and killed 36, people. The Kutch earthquake of June 16, generated strong tsunamis which submerged the coastal areas.
The land area measuring 24 km in length was raised upward because of tectonic movements. The following are the significant tsunamis in the second half of the 20th century and 21st century: May 22, , a strong earthquake of the magnitude of 8. March 28,, a strong earthquake of the magnitude of 8. July 17, , a moderate intensity 7. December 26, , a powerful earthquake of the magnitude of 9 on Richter scale, off the coast of Sumatra with its epicenter at Simeulue in the Indian Ocean occurred at The deep oceanic earthquake was caused due to sudden subduction of Indian plate below Burma plate upto 20 meters in a boundary line of km or even more km upto southern China.
This earthquake was largest highest on Richter scale since and the 4th largest since A. The Andaman and Nicobar group of islands were only km 80 miles away from the epicenter Simeulue and the east coasts of India were about km miles away from the epicenter. The furious tsunami with a height of about 10 m adversely affected 12 countries bordering the Indian Ocean; worst affected areas included Tamil Nadu coast and Andman-Nicobar Islands of India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Thailand.
The strong tsunami took about 3 hours to strike Tamil Nadu coast. The killer tsunami claimed more than, human lives in the affected countries wherein Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India stood 1st, 2nd and 3rd in the number of human casualties. March, 11, ; time: If we look at the world distribution map of earthquakes fig.
Earthquakes are, in fact, associated with the weaker and isostatically disturbed areas of the globe. The east Pacific, and the other oceanic ridges, where plates separate. Earthquake epicenters are also aligned along the transform faults, where plates slide past each other. But the earthquakes that occur at depths greater than about km typically occur near margins where plates collide.
It is a basic tenet of the theory of plate tectonics that these deep earthquakes actually define the positions of sub-ducted plates which are plunging back into the mantle beneath an overriding plate. This belt accounts for about 65 per cent of the total earthquakes of the world.
The western marginal zones of North and South Americas are represented by Rockies and Andes folded mountain chains respectively. These zones are isostatically very sensitive zones because they are also the zones of convergent plate boundaries where the Pacific Oceanic plate is being continuously subducted below the American plates.
Besides, these zones are also the areas of strong volcanic activity. Japan records about seismic shocks every year. About 21 per cent of the total seismic events of the world are recorded in this belt. This belt represents the weaker zones of folded mountains where isostatic and fault-induced earthquakes are caused due to subduction of African and Indian plates below Eurasian plate.
Uttar Kashi earthquake of October 20, and Chamoli earthquake of 29 March, all in Uttaranchal of India are latest examples. The plain seismic region is a zone of comparatively moderate intensity. Even the earthquakes of Assam are also included in this zone.
The peninsular Indian region is considered to be a zone of minimum intensity. Anchal Chauhan January 28, Nikhil guttate February 8, Abhijeet kumar February 11, Good essay but aur aacha ho sakta tha.
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