The antivivisectionist movement in England, which sought to abolish the use of animals in research, became engaged in large-scale public agitation in , coincident with the development of experimental physiology and the rapid growth of biomedical research. In , a royal commission appointed to investigate vivisection issued a report that led to enactment of the Cruelty to Animals Act.
The act did not abolish all animal experimentation, as desired by the antivivisection movement. Rather, it required experimenters to be licensed by the government for experiments that were expected to cause pain in vertebrates. As animal experimentation increased in the United States in the second half of the nineteenth century, animal sympathizers in this country also became alarmed. The first American antivivisectionist society was founded in Philadelphia in , followed by the formation of similar societies in New York in and Boston in Like their predecessors in England, these groups sought to abolish the use of animals in biomedical research, but they were far less prominent or influential than the major animal-protection societies, such as the American SPCA, the Massachusetts SPCA, and the American Humane Association Turner, Unsuccessful in its efforts toward the end of the nineteenth century to abolish the use of laboratory animals Cohen and Loew, , the antivivisectionist movement declined in the early twentieth century.
However, the animal welfare movement remained active, and in the Os and s its increasing strength led to federal regulation of animal experimentation. The Animal Welfare Act was passed in and amended in , , and Similar laws have been enacted in other countries to regulate the treatment of laboratory animals Hampson, Concern over the welfare of animals used in research has made itself felt in other ways.
As discussed in Chapter 5, the Guide is meant to assist institutions in caring for and using laboratory animals in ways judged to be professionally and humanely appropriate. Many professional societies and public and private research institutions have also issued guidelines and statements on the humane use of animals; for example, the American Physiological Society, the Society for Neuroscience, and the American Psychological Association. In recent years a great expansion of biomedical and behavioral research has occurred.
Simultaneously, there has been increased expression of concern over the use of animals in research. Wide publicity of several cases involving the neglect and misuse of experimental animals has sensitized people to the treatment of laboratory animals.
Societal attitudes have also changed, as a spirit of general social concern and a strong belief that humans have sometimes been insensitive to the protection of the environment have contributed to an outlook in which the use of animals is a subject of concern. Of course, any indifference to the suffering of animals properly gives rise to legitimate objections. From time to time some few members of the scientific community have been found to mistreat or inadequately care for research animals.
Such actions are not acceptable. Maltreatment and improper care of animals used in research cannot be tolerated by the scientific establishment. Individuals responsible for such behavior must be subject to censure by their peers. Out of this concern that abuse be prevented, organizations have emerged to monitor how laboratory animals are being treated, and government agencies and private organizations have adopted regulations governing animal care and use.
Discussions about laboratory animal use have also been influenced in recent years by the emergence of groups committed to a concept termed "animal rights. Their view recognizes more than the traditional interdependent connections between humans and animals: It reflects a belief that animals, like humans, have inherent rights" Regan, ; Singer, Their use of the term "rights" in connection with animals departs from its customary usage or common meaning.
In Western history and culture, "rights" refers to legal and moral relationships among the members of a community of humans; it has not been applied to other entities Cohen, Our society does, however, acknowledge that living things have inherent value. In practice, that value imposes an ethical obligation on scientists to minimize pain and distress in laboratory animals. Our society is influenced by two major strands of thought: The dominance of humans is accepted in both traditions.
The Judeo-Christian notion of dominance is reflected in the passage in the Bible that states Genesis 1: And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
However, the Judeo-Christian heritage also insists that dominance be attended by responsibility. Power used appropriately must be used with the morality of caring. The uniqueness of humans, most philosophers agree, lies in our ability to make moral choices. We have the option to decide to dominate animals, but we also have a mandate to make choices responsibly to comply with the obligations of stewardship.
From tradition and practice it is clear that society accepts the idea of a hierarchy of species in its attitudes toward and its regulation of the relationships between humans and the other animal species. For example, animals as different as nonhuman primates, dogs, and cats are given special consideration as being "closer" to humans and are treated differently from rodents, reptiles, and rabbits. Most individuals would agree that not all species of animals are equal and would reject the contention of animal rights advocates who argue that it is "speciesism" to convey special status to humans.
Clearly, humans are different, in that humans are the only species able to make moral judgments, engage in reflective thought, and communicate these thoughts. Because of this special status, humans have felt justified to use animals for food and fiber, for personal use, and in experimentation.
As indicated earlier, however, these uses of animals by humans carry with them the responsibility for stewardship of the animals. Several recent surveys have examined public opinion about the use of laboratory animals in scientific experimentation Doyle Dane Bernbach, ; Media General, ; Research Strategies Corp.
Most of the people interviewed want to see medical research continued, even at the expense of animals' lives. Almost all people support the experimental use of rodents. Support for the use of dogs, cats, and monkeys is less, and people clearly would prefer that rodents be used instead. Most people polled believe that animals used in research are treated humanely. Animal experimentation Essay, term paper, research paper: Animal Rights See all college papers and term papers on Animal Rights.
Need a different custom essay on Animal Rights? Buy a custom essay on Animal Rights. Need a custom research paper on Animal Rights? Click here to buy a custom term paper. As a child we all must have dreamt about visiting a zoo. During our visit we all might have teased the animals in the cage, or gav Frank Meehan picked up Charlie, the frail brown monkey and placed him into what would soon be his coffin. Everyday, more and more people are making the choice to lead a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle.
Vegans abstain from partaking in all You're walking down the street in D. Specific Purpose — To persuade my audience that animal testing is wrong and how other safer alternatives should be taken. There are an estimated A Major Issue of today are the cruel acts against test animals in class rooms and labs, these animals are literally being tortured I would like to start this essay by stating that I am against the motion, and that I see no reason what so ever why fox hunting sh For the most part, we would not be able to live very comfortably without them.
The question of what is considered proper tr One of the most touchy aspects of our relationship with animals is the use of animals in laboratory sciences. Do you consider yourself a pet lover? Do you love animals in general? Can you imagine yourself as a little boy in a trailer far aw Animals have been used in medical research for centuries.
Most of the animals used for research are rodents - rats, mice, hamsters The choice of eating meat or not has been a debated issue for a continued number of years. There have long since been two sides:
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